Обыкновенная зеленушка, лесная канарейка (ру.)
European greenfinch (en.)
Verderón europeo, verderón común (es.)
Order — Passeriformes
Family — Fringillidae.
Subfamily — Carduelinae.
Genus — Chloris.
Species — Chloris chloris.
The natural range of the Greenfinch is Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and western Asia. It was also successfully introduced to the Azores and eastern Australia.
Greenfinches mainly occupy man-modified habitats including farmland, scrub, pine plantations, orchards and suburban parks and gardens. They are found to a lesser degree in native forests, but seldom far from the fringes.
Length: 15 cm.
Wingspan: 25-28 cm.
Weight: 25-32 g.
Head is large.
Tail is shortish, forked, dark at the tip and centre and yellow on the sides.
The plumage of both sexes is a mixture of greens and greys with splashes of bright yellow - the female being duller, browner and showing faint streaks.
Bill is massive, very thick at base, pale, with a pinkish tinge.
Legs are slightly fleshy pink.
Coverts, cheeks and undertail coverts are greyish.
In spring, sings from high perch or in wavering songflight over territory. Found mainly in farmland and around towns and parks. A common garden bird, often occurring in large flocks.
The Greenfinch's diet is seeds, buds and berries.
They will visit bird tables for seed, but are increasingly happy to perch on hanging feeders containing peanuts or black sunflower seeds, where they often remain for several minutes and sometimes up to half an hour or more. If a feeder contains a seed mix, they will often throw all the other seeds on to the floor so as to get the black sunflower seeds.
Greenfinches have a number of different calls, uttered either from a perch or given in flight, including a rapidly delivered ‘chichichichichit’ and the characteristic nasal ‘dzwee’, the latter commonly heard during the breeding season. The song is usually consists of a mix of pleasant tremolos interspersed with some rather less-melodic tones and a rather nasal ‘chewlee’ note.
Stress: the most common cause of feather loss in finches is stress.
Eye Problems / Conjunctivitis: Herpes virus infection; Mycoplasmal Conjunctivitis or Blepharitis.
Parasites. Iodine deficiency. Scaly Face Mites. Scaly Legs.
Greenfinches can breed when less than a year old, and can rear up to 3 broods in a season. They are not territorial, but do defend a small area adjacent to the nest. The nest is a fairly bulky structure of twigs, grass and moss, lined with feathers, hair and down. It is normally built in a tree or shrub at a height of 2-3 m. Usually 5 eggs are laid. The female incubates alone, but is fed on the nest, or nearby, by the male. When the chicks hatch, they are fed by regurgitation on a diet consisting largely of seeds, by the female at first, and later by the male also. The chicks fledge after about 15-16 days, and are fed for a further 3 weeks or so.